Rights of Non-Muslims In IslamBismillah Hir Rehman Ir Raheem
Start In the Name Of Allah The Most Beneficent The Most Merciful
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Islam a religion of peace and equality as it gives everyone the equal rights whether person is a Muslim or a non-Muslim. There is no discrimination for anyone in Islam.
Prophet said in his last sermon:
" An Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action"
Islam is the messenger of kindness and The Holy Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) was sent as a mercy to the mankind of whole universe. The Holy Quran says:
“And We have not sent you but as a mercy to all the worlds” [Quran 21:107]
The Holy Quran clearly uses the word “universe” which clarifies that The Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) is not only the mercy for the Muslims but for non-Muslims as well. So there should be no doubt in any person’s mind that Islam does not believe in equality and Islamic teachings are biased.
A Muslims have no right to harm their places of worship in any means. Even, they are not allowed to cut their trees and attack women, children and old men. Islam does not allow a Muslim to enter the house of his non-Muslim neighbor without his permission. These just relations between Muslims and people of other faiths were not due to mere politics played by Muslim rulers, but rather they were a direct result of the teachings of the religion of Islam, one which preaches that people of other religions be free to practice their own faith, only accepting the guidance offered by Islam by their own choice. Allah says in the Quran: “There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion. The right course has become clear from the wrong. So whoever disbelieves in Taghut and believes in Allah has grasped the most trustworthy handhold with no break in it. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing.” [Quran 2:256]
Non-Muslims can seek asylum in Muslim states and the Muslims are also allowed to get asylum in non-Muslim states as the Prophet (PBUH) ordered the earliest Muslims to go to Abyssinia and seek refuge in the Christian country of Negus. Islam has bound all Muslim jurists to be unbiased in their verdict as the Muslims as well as non-Muslims are to be treated equally. Muslim states are also ordered to look after the rights of non-Muslims even from the funds of Finance Department (Bait-ul-Maal).
Non Muslims rights would be decided absolutely and completely on the foundations of the agreement between them and the Islamic state. Muslims are bound by their religion to abide by these terms on all conditions. Any kind of deviation and transgression would come under the breach of contract and Islam holds breaches of faith as forbidden and has branded it a mortal sin.
Allah has said:
Keep (your) covenants because indeed on the Day of Judgement you will be held accountable for them. [Quran17:34]
For this reason the Prophet (sws) said:According to the teachings of Islam, a Muslim must treat even the dead body and bones of a non-Muslim with respect. It is a great sin to disrespect dead body of a non-Muslim. Islam gives equal rights to non-Muslims with the Muslims to exercise the right of freedom of speech. Non-Muslims can share their views and criticize any wrongdoing by the Muslims or Muslim state. A Haidth of The Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) should be enough for a Muslim to take care of a non-Muslim’s rights.
And let not the enmity of a people turn you away from justice. Deal justly; this is nearer to piety. [Quran 5:8]
Therefore, according to this principle, it is the right of the non-Muslims that:
Their life, wealth and honour should be protected by the state such that no one is able to lay hands on them.
The Jizyyah imposed on them should be according to their financial conditions.
Jizyyah should only be imposed on individuals who can take part in a war. Children, women, the ha ndicapped, the insane, hermits and monks who have given up the pleasures of the world and the old and the sick who cannot earn their living should in all circumstances be exempted from this tax.
The needy and poor among them should be provided the basic necessities of life.
Their personal matters and religious rituals should be exempted from the law of the state and no interference should be made in their faith and religion.
Their places of worship should not be tampered with.
They should be allowed to present their religion to others in a polite manner.
In short, except for participating in the state affairs, they should be given all the rights which are sanctioned by the norms of justice and fairness for people in a civilised society, and in this regard all dealings should be done in a befitting manner because Allah likes people who adopt this attitude.
(Adapted from Moiz Amjad's Commentary on Ghamidi's Manshur)
“Beware! Whoever is cruel and hard on a non-Muslim minority, curtails their rights, burdens them with more than they can bear, or takes anything from them against their free will; I (Prophet Muhammad) will complain against the person on the Day of Judgment.” [Sunnan Abu Dawud, Volume No. 3, Page No. 170, Hadith No. 3052]A Muslims should not force any Non-Muslim or stop him to pratice his religion
"Say: O disbelievers! I worship not that which ye worship; Nor worship ye that which I worship. And I shall not worship that which ye worship. Nor will ye worship that which I worship. Unto you your religion, and unto me my religion." 
"And if your Lord had pleased, surely all those who are in the earth would have believed, all of them; will you then force men till they become believers?" [Quran 10:99]
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