Wednesday, 17 December 2014

A Short Tafsir Of Surah Ikhlas

Say, "He is Allah , [who is] One,
Allah , the Eternal Refuge.
He neither begets nor is born,
Nor is there to Him any equivalent."

Revelation of this Surah
Imam Ahmad recorded from Ubayy bin Ka`b that the idolators said to the Prophet , "O Muhammad! Tell us the lineage of your Lord.'' So Allah revealed
قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ - اللَّهُ الصَّمَدُ - لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ - وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَّهُ كُفُواً أَحَدٌ
[Tafsir Ibn Khatir]

Similar was recorded in Tirmidhi with a weak chain of transmitters.
Abu Al-Aliyah narrated "The Prophet mentioned their (the idolater's) gods, so they said: 'Then name your Lord's lineage for us.'" He said: "So Jibril, peace be upon him, came to him with this Surat: Say: "he is Allah, the One [Book 47, Hadith 3691]

 “Say: "He is Allah, [who is] One, Allah the Eternal Refuge (Samad).”

Allah is One and alone, there is no one equal to Him in any aspects. He has the power over all the dominions of the worlds and Heavens.  Word “Ahad” is derived from “Wahid”  As Samad is One Who does not give birth, nor was He born, because there is nothing that is born except that it will die, and there is nothing that dies except that it leaves behind inheritance, and indeed Allah does not die and He does not leave behind any inheritance. As  Samad covers many aspects other than Eternal refuge it also means Self sufficient, the need of all creations, meaning the One Who all of the creation depends upon for their needs and their requests. He alone is the Sustainer: no one else has any share or part in providence and since He alone can be the Deity Who is Master and Sustainer, therefore, no one else is His associate in Divinity either.

“He neither begets nor is born, Nor is there to Him any equivalent."

“He begets not nor is He born”. This is an answer to idolaters who asked about the kunya (lineage) of Allah. Having a son implies you will have an equal, a heir and that is not possible for Allah as Allah is As Samad, free from all needs meaning He does not have any child, parent or spouse

Allah says: [He is] Originator of the heavens and the earth. How could He have a son when He does not have a companion [sahibah] and He created all things? And He is, 
of all things, Knowing. [al An'am 6:101]. 
And Allah says in Quran, “And they say: Ar-Rahman has begotten a son. Indeed you have brought forth (said) a terrible evil thing. Whereby the heavens are almost torn, and the earth is split asunder, and the mountains fall in ruins, that they ascribe a son to Ar-Rahman. But it is not suitable for Ar-Rahman that He should beget a son. There is none in the heavens and the earth but comes unto Ar-Rahman as a slave. Verily, He knows each one of them, and has counted them a full counting. And all of them will come to Him alone on the Day of Resurrection.)” [19:88-95].
This is Shirk (associating partners with Allah) because a person may do whatever he wants of disobedience to Allah, but then he wants to hide behind someone close to Allah to protect him from Allah’s anger. This person will even try to please and over praise that intercessor, so that the intercessor will intercede in favor of his case in the court of Allah. Little do these people know that Allah will forgive who He wills on that Day, and this is the sin that Allah does not forgive (of shirk).

There is no equal yo Him. This means that there is none similar to Him, none equal to Him and there is nothing at all like Him, there is no partner or anyone to His level. Allah says in Quran in Surat Al Anbiya verse 22
“If there were in both of them (i.e., the heaven and the earth) gods expcept Allah, indeed they would (both) suffer corruption (disorder, confusion). All Extolment (Glory) be to Allah, The Lord of the Throne, above whatever they describe.”

Prophet PBUH used to recite Surah Kafirun and Surah Ikhlas in two rakah before Fajr and in two rakah after Maghrib

It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that in the two Rak’ah before the Fajr, the Prophet () used to recite: “Say: ‘O you disbelievers!” [Al-Kafirun (109)] and “Say: Allah is One.” [Al-Ikhlas (112)]
[Sunan Ibn Majah : Vol. 1, Book 5, Hadith 1148]

It was narrated from ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud that for the two Rak’ah after Maghrib, the Prophet () used to recite: “Say: O you disbelievers!” [Al-Kafirun (109)] and “Say: He is Allah the One.” [Al- Ikhlas (112)]
[Sunan Ibn Majah Vol. 1, Book 5, Hadith 1166 also recorded by nasai]

Surah Ikhlas is one third of Quran
The Prophet () said to his companions, "Is it difficult for any of you to recite one third of the Qur'an in one night?" This suggestion was difficult for them so they said, "Who among us has the power to do so, O Allah's Messenger ()?" Allah Apostle replied: "Allah (the) One, the Self-Sufficient Master Whom all creatures need.' (Surat Al-Ikhlas 112.1--to the End) is equal to one third of the Qur'an."
[Sahih al-Bukhari Book 66, Hadith 37]
It is reported on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah () said:
Get together. for I am going to recite one-third of the Qur'an before you. And those who could get together gathered there. Then the Messenger of Allah () came out and recited:" Say: He, Allah, is One." He then entered (his house). Some of us said to the others: Perhaps there has been some news from the heaven on account of which he has gone Inside (the house). The Apostle of Allah () again came out and said: I told you that I was going to recite one-third of the Qur'in; keep in mind, this (Surah Ikhlas) is equivalent to one-third of the Qur'an.
[Sahih Muslim Book 6, Hadith 316]

Surah Ikhlas as remedy
Narrated `Aisha: Whenever Allah's Messenger () went to bed, he used to recite Surat-al-Ikhlas, Surat-al-Falaq and Surat-an- Nas and then blow on his palms and pass them over his face and those parts of his body that his hands could reach. And when he fell ill, he used to order me to do like that for him.
[Sahih Bukhari Book 76, Hadith 63]

He who loves Ikhlas, Allah loves him too
'Aishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported:
Messenger of Allah, (
) appointed a man in charge of an army unit who led them in Salat (prayer); he always concluded his recitation with Surat Al-Ikhlas: "Say (O Muhammad ()): 'He is Allah, (the) One. Allah-us-Samad (Allah - the Self-Sufficient). He begets not, nor was He begotten. And there is none equal or comparable to Him."' (112:1-4) Upon their return to Al-Madinah, they mentioned this to Messenger of Allah (), who said, "Ask him why he does so?" He was asked and he said, "This Surah contains the Attributes of Allah, the Gracious, and I love to recite it. Messenger of Allah () then told them, "Tell him that Allah loves him".
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded in Riyad As Salihin Book 1, Hadith 388]

Love of Surah Ikhlas
Anas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: A man said: "O Messenger of Allah! I love Surat-Al-Ikhlas [Say: He is Allah, (the) One]." He () said, "Your love for it will admit you to Jannah."
[Recorded by At-Tirmidhi quoted in Riyadh As Salihin Book 9, Hadith 1013].

Narrated Abu Hurairah: "I went out with the Messenger of Allah and heard a man reciting Qul Huwa Allahu Ahad [Allahus-Samad] so the Messenger of Allah () said: 'It is obligatory.' I said: 'What is obligatory?' He said: 'Paradise.'" [Tirmidhi Book 45, Hadith 3142]